Home Gambling

Gambling in America: An Encyclopedia of History, Issues, and Society


ISBN: 1576071596 | 2001 | PDF | 508 pages | 6 mb
Whether they're called "gaming" by the industry's supporters or "gambling" by its opponents, games of chance have always exerted a powerful pull. Every human society has indulged in some form of gambling and, ironically, has also tried to prohibit or limit it. In this comprehensive, objective look at gamblingâ


Amazon.com The picture of Islam as a violent, backward, and insular tradition should be laid to rest, says Karen Armstrong, bestselling author of Muhammad and A History of God. Delving deep into Islamic history, Armstrong sketches the arc of a story that begins with the stirring of revelation in an Arab businessman named Muhammad. His concern with the poor who were being left behind in the blush of his society's new prosperity sets the tone for the tale of a culture that values community as a manifestation of God. Muhammad's ideas catch fire, quickly blossoming into a political empire. As the empire expands and the once fractured Arabs subdue and overtake the vast Persian domain, the story of a community becomes a panoramic drama. With great dexterity, Armstrong narrates the Sunni-Shi'ite schism, the rise of Persian influence, the clashes with Western crusaders and Mongolian conquerors, and the spiritual explorations that traced the route to God. Armstrong brings us through the debacle of European colonialism right up to the present day, putting Islamic fundamentalism into context as part of a worldwide phenomenon. Islam: A Short History, like Bruce Lawrence's Shattering the Myth and Mark Huband's Warriors of the Prophet, introduces us to a faith that beckons like a minaret to those who dare to venture beyond the headlines. --Brian Bruya From Publishers Weekly Readers seeking a quick but thoughtful introduction to Islam will want to peruse Armstrong's latest offering. In her hallmark stylish and accessible prose, the author of A History of God takes readers from the sixth-century days of the Prophet Muhammad to the present. Armstrong writes about the revelations Muhammad received, and explains that the Qur'an earned its name (which means recitation) because most of Muhammad's followers were illiterate and learned his teachings not from reading them but hearing them proclaimed aloud. Throughout the book, Armstrong traces what she sees as Islam's emphasis on right living (? la Judaism) over right belief (? la Christianity). Armstrong is at her most passionate when discussing Islam in the modern world. She explains antagonisms between Iraqi Muslims and Syrian Muslims, and discusses the devastating consequences of modernization on the Islamic world. Unlike Europe, which modernized gradually over centuries, the Islamic world had modernity thrust upon it in an exploitative manner. The Islamic countries, Armstrong argues, have been "reduced to a dependent bloc by the European powers." Armstrong also rehearses some basics about Islamic fundamentalism in a section that will be familiar to anyone who has read her recent study, The Battle for God. A useful time line and a guide to the "Key Figures in the History of Islam" complete this strong, brisk survey of 1,500 years of Islamic history. (Aug.)

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Mormonism: A cult in the strongest terms or is it the only true church on the face of the planet? You have got to hear these! You wont believe what is behind this curtain. Teaching you can become gods, possibly in greater glory than our god. Blacks were denied the preisthood untill 1978 because god said so. That god is a ressurected man and had physical sex with mary to concieve jesus, whom he had created. Thousands of more strange beliefs that will shock even the strongest athiest to the core, not to mention true christians who belief that the bible is the only true word of god. Not acording to Mormonism, the bile is flawed and is 4th in line to the book of mormon, pearl of great price. doctrine and covenents. Dr.Walter Martin Lechtures, Speeches and Debates on Mormonism. MormonMaze.mp3 Mormons and the Negros.mp3 Mormon Jesus Who is He?.mp3 dialoge on doorstep.MP3 Martin debates Van Hale.mp3 Nartin Boldness.mp3 Holiness.mp2 Dr. Walter Ralston Martin (September 10, 1928 ? June 26, 1989), was an American Evangelical minister, author, and Christian apologist who founded the Christian Research Institute in 1960 as a para-church ministry specialising as a clearing-house of information in both general Christian apologetics and in countercult apologetics. Dr. Martin also wal a renowned teacher on the cults including mormonism which was probably his strongest field of study. Family Martin was born in Brooklyn, New York to George W. Martin (1876-1948) and Maud Ainsworth (1892-1966). His father was a prominent figure in the legal profession who served as an assistant District attorney, before working as a criminal trial lawyer. In 1920 he became a county court judge and presided over cases involving some of the notorious Murder Inc criminals. Judge Martin himself was indicted on charges of bribery in an abortion racket case, but he was acquitted at trial in early 1939. The trial received daily coverage in the New York Times (between May 22 and June 5, 1939). Later that year the New York state Governor Herbert H. Lehman and special assistant attorney general John Harlan Amen both sought the impeachment of Judge Martin through the state senate. The impeachment hearings were convened in October 1939, and the Senate declined to remove Judge Martin. Martin's mother, Maud Ainsworth, was born in Chicago to Joseph Ainsworth and Annie Young. She was one of several children born of that marriage, but was put up for adoption. Her adoptive parents were James McIntyre (1857-1937) a vaudevillian (one partner of the black-face duo tramp clowns: Thomas Heath and Jim McIntyre), and Emma Young (1864-1935), a dancer and balladeer (known on stage as Maude Clifford). Martin was raised in the Bedford-Stuyvesant area of Brooklyn, and was one of six children. In his earliest years the family was domiciled in Macdonough Street, and then from 1930 onwards in Bainbridge Street, Brooklyn. In the mid-1940s he attended Stony Brook School where he obtained his high school diploma. At age seventeen he eloped with Patricia Alice Toner, with the marriage lasting about four years. Patricia Toner was the daughter of the prominent Long Island oyster entrepreneur Royal Toner. In June 1952 Martin married Elaine Lois Jacobsen, and this marriage ended in July 1973. There were five children born out of this union. In November 1973 Martin married Darlene Nesland, and one daughter was born. Darlene Nesland remained his wife until Martin's death in 1989. [edit] Continuing Education Martin's tertiary education began with his brief enrollment at Adelphi University (September 1946-January 1947), followed by attendance at Washington Bible College in 1948. Martin finally settled on taking a degree at Shelton College where he was enrolled from 1949 until graduation with a B.A. in 1951. He further obtained a Bachelor of Religious Education degree in 1952 from Shelton College. One of his best known lecturers at Shelton College was James Oliver Buswell. In 1956 he received a Master of Arts degree by coursework in religious education at New York University. Martin then proceeded as a candidate for the Doctor of Education degree at New York University but did not fulfill all the requisite work to be awarded the degree. He subsequently obtained a Ph.D. in 1976 from California Coast University (which was known as California Western University from its founding in 1973 until loss of a name-infringement suit in 1981). This latter qualification has been the focus of much contentious debate between Martin's admirers and critics (see below), due in part to the fact that the school has never been accredited to award doctorates. [edit] Career [edit] Early years Martin's career as an apologist coincided with his tertiary education in 1949 as he reputedly self-published some pamphlets on cults. He also practiced answering a variety of questions about the Bible and faith during lunch hours at a public park situated near Wall Street, in New York City. Martin has indicated in various book dedications and in audio recorded lectures how he was mentored by Frank Gaebelein (Principal, Stony Brook School), Wilbur Smith (1894-1976) (author of the apologetic text Therefore Stand), and the Presbyterian radio evangelist Donald Grey Barnhouse (1895-1960). Martin's relationship with Barnhouse proved strategic as he was appointed as a regular columnist to Eternity magazine (1955-60). Barnhouse's support for Martin validated his early ministry in much of the American Evangelical world. He also worked for a time as a research associate for the National Association of Evangelicals. Martin was ordained as a minister of the Regular Baptists in 1951, but this was revoked in 1953 owing to his remarriage. His status as a minister has been the subject of much controversy (see below "Controversies"). While doubts have been raised over his ordination, what is clear is that Martin did serve as a pastor in various churches in New York and New Jersey in the 1950s and 1960s. He also became a regular presenter of Bible study classes convened by Barnhouse in New York City. In later years Martin would serve as a preacher and Bible study leader at Melodyland Christian Center and then at Newport Mesa Christian Center in California. [edit] Evangelical-Adventist controversy Perhaps the greatest public controversy of his early career arose from his studies of Seventh-day Adventist theology. From its earliest days until the 1950s, the Seventh-day Adventist Church was regarded by Evangelicals and mainstream Protestants as either an extreme sect or heretical cult. Martin had initially accepted the received Protestant opinion about the heretical status of the Seventh-day Adventists. He indicated his opposition to Adventist teachings in a brief paragraph in the inaugural edition of his book The Rise of the Cults, published in 1955. However, he reversed his views after a series of interviews with various leaders of the Seventh-day Adventist Church, and on reading Adventist literature. Martin reported his initial findings to Barnhouse, and between 1955-56 a series of small conferences were held, with Barnhouse and Martin meeting Adventist leaders like T. E. Unruh and LeRoy Froom. Barnhouse and Martin then published some of their findings in a series of articles that appeared in Eternity between September and November 1956. The standpoint taken by Barnhouse and Martin was that Adventists were largely orthodox on central doctrines, but heterodox on lesser doctrines, and so could be classified as belonging in the Evangelical camp. Martin later expanded his position in his 1960 book-length treatment, The Truth About Seventh-day Adventism. Adventist leaders themselves wrote and published a companion book, Seventh-day Adventists Answer Questions on Doctrine[1], in 1957. In the late 1950s and early 1960s Evangelical opinions were divided over the Martin-Barnhouse stance on the Adventists. Some, like E. Schuyler English, supported Martin, some such as John Gerstner urged a sober and fair hearing, while others, such as Louis Talbot, J. K. van Baalen, Harold Lindsell and Anthony Hoekema, opposed his view. [edit] Early writings Between 1955-65 Martin enjoyed a relationship with Zondervan publishers where he was appointed as director of cult apologetics publications. During this period Zondervan released several publications about cults under his direction, with at least eight books and four booklets written by Martin. His earliest countercult books included Jehovah of the Watchtower, The Christian Science Myth, The Christian and the Cults and The Maze of Mormonism. In his first handbook, The Rise of the Cults, he wrote concise chapters about Jehovah's Witnesses, the Theosophical Society, Mormonism, Christian Science, the Unity School of Christianity, and Father Divine, with an exhortative chapter urging the church to treat the cults as an important mission-field. Most of the contents of his earliest books reappeared in his major textbook The Kingdom of the Cults, which was first released in 1965, and has reputedly sold some 750,000 copies worldwide. Martin's primary approach to assessing cults was to focus on doctrinal issues, particularly those concerning the person, nature and work of Christ. Martin emphasised contrasting his interpretation of Biblical teachings with those of the cults, and for many evangelicals he standardised the dominant style of countercult apologetics by refuting what he claimed to be heresy. Although Martin was developing a reputation as an authority figure on cults, his role as a columnist in Eternity magazine also allowed him scope to address other topics such as basic Christian doctrines, the theology of Karl Barth, the problem of alcoholism, and reviewing books. His basic approach in apologetics was that of an evidentialist. Throughout his writing career Martin had articles published in other periodicals including Christianity Today, United Evangelical Action, The Christian Librarian, Christian Life, Christian Research Newsletter, Logos Journal, Moody Monthly, and Our Hope. [edit] Christian Research Institute In 1960 Martin established the Christian Research Institute in New Jersey, and then in 1974 relocated it to Southern California. In its earliest years Martin's colleagues who were associated with Christian Research Institute included Walter Bjorck, James Bjornstad, Floyd Hamilton, and Shildes Johnson, many of whom went on to publish countercult books. Through this para-church organisation Martin built up a reference library of primary sources, sought to train Christians in the art of apologetics and evangelism, developed a bureau of speakers, and from the early 1960s conceived of the need for a computerised data base of apologetic information. Martin's prescient advocacy of using computer technology for apologetic purposes led to a major conference, the All-Europe Conference on Computer Technique for Theological Research held in Austria in September 1968. This became the subject of the book Computers, Cultural Change and the Christ, which was written by Martin's friend and colleague John Warwick Montgomery. In 1978 he established a ministry periodical known as Forward, which was redesigned in 1987 as Christian Research Journal. Martin mentored several figures who have become prominent apologists in the Christian countercult movement including Bob and Gretchen Passantino, Elliot Miller, John Weldon, Ron Rhodes, Rich Poll, Paul Carden, and Robert Bowman. Many of the people who have established ministries in the Christian countercult movement regard Martin as the grandfather figure of this form of apologetics. One indicator of the high esteem in which he was held is that at least twelve books have been dedicated to him. [edit] Broadcaster, debater and lecturer Martin was also a radio broadcaster who began this side of his ministry on Barnhouse's program. In the mid 1960s Martin regularly appeared as a guest panelist on The Long John Nebel Show, and then commenced his own program known as "The Bible Answer Man." Between the mid-1960s until his death in 1989 Martin debated in public various non-Christians such as atheist author/activist Madalyn Murray O'Hair and Hugh Schonfield, theologians of Liberal Christianity like Thomas J. J. Altizer and Bishop John Shelby Spong, and leaders of new religions like Roy Masters. He appeared several times on the John Ankerberg television show debating advocates of Freemasonry, the Bah?'? Faith, and other groups. In the earliest years of his ministry Martin became an itinerant speaker, addressing Protestant churches and para-church groups about the theological problems posed by cults with much emphasis on analysing the teachings of groups like Christian Science, Jehovah's Witnesses, Mormons, Spiritualists, Father Divine, Unity School of Christianity and Herbert W. Armstrong's Worldwide Church of God. In 1958 he spoke throughout East Asia and in Ghana, and in 1961 in Northern and Western Europe. The popularity of Martin's ministry, however, coincided with the Jesus People movement of the early 1970s and the rise of the countercultural interest in East Asian religions and esoteric pathways. As occult interests surfaced in the counterculture and as groups like Hare Krishna, Unification Church, and Children of God emerged, Martin became a much sought after speaker. Martin utilised the burgeoning availability of cassette tapes and disseminated many of his public lectures about apologetics questions and cultic groups. Several albums were released on The World of the Cults, The World of the Occult, The New Cults, How To Witness to Jehovah's Witnesses, and How to Witness to Mormons. Other albums tackled general apologetics To Every Man An Answer, and topical problems such as abortion, homosexuality and women's liberation (Martin Speaks Out). He later appeared in a series of six films produced by Vision House called Martin Speaks Out on the Cults. During the 1980s Martin spoke in churches and para-church conferences in Australia, Brazil, Kenya and New Zealand. His final book dealt with New Age spirituality. Martin maintained a part-time role as a lecturer in various liberal arts and bible colleges including King's College (New York), Melodyland School of Theology in Anaheim, California, and was for many years a board member of Gordon-Conwell Theological Seminary. In 1980 he joined John Warwick Montgomery in promoting apologetics through the Master of Arts program at the Simon Greenleaf School of Law. [edit] Controversies Martin was a figure of controversy who aroused great loyalty among his colleagues, and deep animosity from many of his detractors. He was criticised by some fundamentalist Protestants for his affiliations with Pentecostals and Charismatics (even though he was a Baptist), and for his refusal to classify the Roman Catholic church as a "cult". He was the subject of scathing criticism of his doctrinal stance by the Canadian historian and ex-Jehovah's Witness M. James Penton. He was also criticized by Thomas Johnsen for defending the Lieber manuscript as an authentic source document for Mary Baker Eddy's Christian Science, also identified as a "cult" by conservatives due to its unorthodox teachings. In the 1980s Martin was involved in critical debates over the positive confession success theology (also called Word Faith) of Christian charismatic teachers such as Kenneth Copeland and Kenneth Hagin. While Martin was critical of these teachers' claims concerning their views of Christ, healing, faith, and prosperity, he nonetheless was persuaded of the perpetuity of charismatic spiritual gifts in the church. To that end Martin presented his positive appraisal of spiritual gifts in several audio lectures, and by editing with chapter end-notes, a fresh reprint edition of 19th century evangelist D. L. Moody's book Secret Power. He was involved in several public confrontations with Mormon leaders and apologists, one of which involved contesting the content of Martin's lectures and credentials in a Californian lawsuit in the mid 1970s. Another concerned contested claims about the origins of the Book of Mormon. During the 1980s his tertiary credentials and ordination status as a Baptist minister had further doubts cast on them by popular Mormon apologists Robert and Rosemary Brown, who noted that his "doctorate" was granted by a California diploma mill. They compiled a multi-volume work They Lie In Wait To Deceive, of which the third volume involved a critical attack on Martin's credentials and his claims about The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. Since his death Martin's daughter, Jill Martin Rische, has sought to answer some of these allegations via the website she co-administers, Walter Martin's Religious Information Network, but Martin himself was reluctant to address the issues himself. She has documented her father's ministerial status as a recognized pastor within the Directory of the Californian Southern Baptist Convention, but the academic validity of his doctorate remains a point of debate between his supporters and detractors. A large part of this controversy stems from his use of the title "Doctor" long before it was awarded to him, and even before the founding of the correspondence school which made the award. California Coast University was founded in 1973 under the name "California Western University", but lost a name-infringement suit in 1981. The school was identified as a diploma mill in official GAO Special Investigations Report (# GAO-04-1096T) which stated that the school provided degrees upon payment of a flat fee. It has since become accredited to award undergraduate degrees, and offers no theological degrees whatsoever. Other refuted claims included his supposedly having been a descendant of Brigham Young, and having inherited Young's "secret library," from which Martin supposedly gleaned the "truth about Mormonism." At least in one instance he was guilty of sloppy journalism. In a recorded program making it's way around northern California Mormons in the late 1970's, Martin recited a list of prominent Mormons, including one "E. LaMar Buckner, president of Standard Oil Company." Buckner, who at the time was president of the LDS Sacramento Mission from 1975 until 1978, answered inquiries about that statement, "Well, I'm still waiting for my first pay check." Buckner had served in 1956 as president of the U.S. Junior Chamber of Commerce, also known as the Jaycees. After his death a controversy ensued about the leadership succession to Christian Research Institute. This controversy was between Martin's widow and children on one side, and Dutch-born apologist Hank Hanegraaff who succeeded to the ministry's presidency. The controversy remains unresolved as Hanegraaff continues to direct the ministry. Jill Martin Rische has sought to perpetuate her father's ministry through Walter Martin's Religious Information Network, and by arranging for the publication in 2003 of a fresh posthumous edition of The Kingdom of the Cults. She also collated and transcribed excerpts from around one hundred of her father's sermons and bible-study talks, which was released in 1999 as Through the Windows of Heaven. -------------------------------------------------------------------- Ed Decker, founder of Saints Alive, was a Mormon for 20 years of his adult life. He was a member of the Melchizedek priesthood, a Temple Mormon and active in many church positions. Through a crisis in his life, Ed met the real Jesus and his life was changed forever. An active author, speaker and evangelist, Ed has brought the light of Biblical truth to uncountable thousands of those lost in spiritual darkness. Today, the work of Saints Alive Ministries has expanded worldwide and includes ministry to other groups such as the Masonic Lodge. We hold that the Holy Bible is God's inerrant eternal Word and is the sole, final authority for faith and practice; that Jesus Christ is God's only begotten Son, Almighty God come in the flesh and humanity's only Savior; and that God's grace through faith in Jesus Christ alone will gain our entrance into the Kingdom of God. We believe in the Trinitarian nature of God as taught in the Bible, believing God was in Christ redeeming the world by the power of the Holy Spirit. We believe in good works as a result of, rather than a means of salvation. We believe that the New Testament church, the Body of Christ, has never apostatized and is alive and well today, called to win the lost to Christ and expecting His soon return! In an era of rapid cult growth worldwide, Christians today more than ever need the trustworthy information contained in The Kingdom of the Cults. This comprehensive new edition equips readers from every walk of life to use biblical truth to counter the efforts of cults to masquerade as mainstream Christians. Readable and reliable to a wide cross-section of Christians - from teachers and pastors to lay believers trying to understand and witness to their neighbors - this book sets the standard for cults reference books during the next decade. The Doctrine of the Trinity The Doctrine of the Trinity teaches that within the unity of the one Godhead there are three separate persons who are coequal in power, nature, and eternity. This doctrine is derived from the clear teaching of Scripture, and is not a man-made doctrine as some (such as the Jehovah's Witnesses) have claimed. Let us briefly examine some of the New Testament evidences for this important doctrine. 1. The Incarnation. The birth of the Lord Jesus Christ as described in the accounts in Matthew and Luke show that the doctrine of the Trinity was not a later invention of theologians. Luke records what an angel said to Mary: "The Holy Spirit will come upon you, and the power of the Most High will overshadow you. So the holy one to be born will be called the Son of God" (Luke 1:35). Since other passages of Scripture reveal that the term "Most High" refers to God the Father, we have in Luke a concrete instance of the Holy Spirit, the Father, and the Son all being mentioned together in the supernatural event of the Incarnation. 2. The Baptism of Our Lord. When Jesus Christ was baptized, the heavens opened and the Holy Spirit "descended on him in bodily form like a dove. And a voice came from heaven: 'You are my Son, whom I love; with you I am well pleased'" (Luke 3:21-22). In these verses we see the Son being baptized, the Spirit descending upon Him, and the Father bearing testimony. 3. Discourses of Christ. In John 14--16 Christ speaks of the persons of the Trinity in His Upper Room Discourse. Jesus declared to the disciples, "And I will ask the Father, and he will give you another Counselor to be with you forever -- the Spirit of truth. The world cannot accept him, because it neither sees him nor knows him. But you know him, for he lives with you and will be in you" (John 14:16-17). Our Lord here prays to the Father for the Spirit, and His emphasis on triunity is quite apparent. In John 14:26 and 15:26 Christ uses the same formula, mentioning the three persons of the Deity and indicating their unity, not only of purpose and will but of basic nature. 4. Paul's Letters. The apostle Paul definitely taught the triune nature of God. He wrote: "May the grace of the Lord Jesus Christ, and the love of God, and the fellowship of the Holy Spirit be with you all" (2 Cor. 13:14). It would have been difficult for Paul to give this benediction if the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit were not equal persons within the Godhead. 5. The Great Commission. In Matthew 28:18-20 the Lord Jesus commissions the disciples to go out and preach the gospel and to make disciples of all nations. He commands them also to baptize "in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Spirit." Taken with the other passages bearing on the subject, this becomes an extremely powerful argument for the Christian doctrine of the trinity. 6. Creation. Although the Bible does not explain to us how the three persons are the one God, it tells us most emphatically that the Spirit of God created the world (Gen. 1:2), the Father created the world (Heb. 1:2), and the Son created the world (Col. 1:16). If you check the creation references in the New Testament, you will see that these particular references are bolstered by several others teaching the same things. The apostle Paul declared in Acts 17:24, "the God who made the world and everything in it is the Lord of heaven and earth and does not live in temples built by hands." This forces us to an irresistible conclusion. As creation has been attributed to the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit singly and collectively, they are the one God. There cannot be three gods. The Scripture declares: "Turn to me and be saved, all you ends of the earth; for I am God, and there is no other" (Isa. 45:22). Hence there is unity in trinity and trinity in unity. 7. The Resurrection of Christ. A final instance of Trinitarian emphasis is that of the resurrection of our Lord. In John 2 Christ declared to the Jews, "Destroy this temple, and I will raise it again in three days" (v. 19). John hastens to tell us that Jesus was speaking of the resurrection of His earthly body (v. 21). Other Scriptures, however, state that Christ was raised by the agency of the Holy Spirit (e.g., Rom. 8:11). And Peter explicitly states that the Father raised the Son (Acts 3:26). So, again, God's Word affirms the triune nature of God. We may not fully understand the great truth of the Trinity. However, we can see the rays of light which emanate from God's Word and which teach us that, in a mysterious sense beyond the comprehension of man's finite mind, God is one in nature but three in person. Christ Died For Us Why did Christ die? A simple question, yes, but the answer is most profound. We might answer, as a Christian, "Christ died for me." But exactly what does this mean? Did He die merely to appease God's wrath against us? Did He die only as an example for us? What does the Atonement really mean? The understanding of this basic scriptural truth eludes many, but it is vital to the soul's redemption and to our spiritual growth. To understand this doctrine we must go back to the Old Testament and its sacrificial offerings. The blood of animals, in itself, was never efficacious to cleanse from sin (Heb. 10:4). Rather, the blood symbolized the element of life offered for the life of the sinner. God always intended that the entire system of sacrificial offerings be of expiatory significance (Job 1:5; 42:3, 9; Lev. 17:2-11). The alienation of man from God through human sin made necessary a reconciliation, and the form of that reconciliation was ordained to be a cross -- on which the ultimate sacrifice would be made. The Jewish sacrificial system with its "covering" offerings (the Hebrew word for atonement, kaphir, means "covering") made possible man's approach to the presence of a holy God. The sprinkling of blood upon the mercy seat in the tabernacle (Lev. 16:15-16) and the sprinkling of the blood of the Passover lamb (Exod. 12:7) underscored the importance of substitutionary sacrifice under the Old Covenant made between Jehovah and Israel. In the New Testament, particularly in the Book of Hebrews, the significance of such sacrifices is revealed in the Lord Jesus Christ, who is pictured as both officiating Priest and atoning Sacrifice (Heb. 9:11-15; 10:10-12). The word "vicarious" comes from the Latin vicar, which literally means "in place of" or "a substitute." Isaiah 53 is a classic passage on the doctrine of the vicarious atonement: "Surely he took up our infirmities and carried our sorrows, yet we considered him stricken by God, smitten by him, and afflicted. But he was pierced for our transgressions, he was crushed for our iniquities; the punishment that brought us peace was upon him, and by his wounds we are healed. We all, like sheep, have gone astray, each of us has turned to his own way; and the LORD has laid on him the iniquity of us all" (vss. 4-6). Isaiah repeatedly stresses the vicarious aspects of the messianic offering when he states, "For the transgression of my people he was stricken...he will bear their iniquities...he bore the sin of many, and made intercession for the transgressors" (Isa. 53:8, 11, 12). Certainly, the vicarious atonement of the Messiah of Israel forms one of the great pillars upon which rests the entire structure of the Christian religion. The Old Testament points like a massive arrow to the consummation of all sacrifices, an event of immeasurable importance and worth. In the New Testament, John the Baptist declares, "Look, the Lamb of God, who takes away the sin of the world!" (John 1:29). And our Savior Himself declares His flesh and blood to be the sin offering for the whole world (John 6:51). When coupled with Paul's declaration that the church of God was "bought with his own blood" (Acts 20:28), such statements give an incontrovertible answer to the question, "Why did Jesus die?" A key Greek word pertinent to understanding the concept of substitutionary atonement -- the idea that Christ died in our place -- is the word anti. In speaking of His substitutionary sacrifice, Christ declared, "The Son of Man did not come to be served, but to serve, and to give his life as a ransom for [anti] many" (Matt. 20:28). At the Last Supper, during which Christ emphasized the vicarious nature of Calvary, He said, "This is my body given for [anti] you" (Luke 22:19). Another key Greek word is huper. In contexts dealing with the substitutionary atonement, this word means "in place of." We find this word used in 2 Corinthians 5:21: "Be reconciled to God. God made him who had no sin to be sin for [huperemon] us, so that in him we might become the righteousness of God." We likewise read in 1 Peter 3:18, "For Christ died for sins once for all, the righteous for [huper] the unrighteous, to bring you to God." What Christ has done for us is wonderful indeed! Let us resolve to draw closer to Him who loves us and loosed us from our sins through His own blood -- "the Lamb of God, which taketh away the sin of the world" (John 1:29) -- Jesus of Nazareth, "the Son of the Highest" (Luke 1:32). Insights on Spiritual Warfare Christians need to recognize the reality of spiritual conflict and warfare. We are born in conflict -- against the world, against our carnal natures, and against the Devil. And if you do not know the nature of your enemy -- if you do not know who your foes are -- you can't fight. It's only when you realize what you're up against that you can be victorious. The Bible says we must stand against such foes as Christian soldiers (2 Tim. 2:4). When God calls you into the church of Jesus Christ, you have enlisted in the army of God. You can truthfully sing, "Onward Christian soldiers, marching as to war," because you are at war. The moment you enlist in the army of God, you personally become a target. You need to remember that if you're living for and walking with Jesus Christ, the powers of darkness are aligned against you. You are on Satan's hit list! The following four principles will help you be victorious in spiritual warfare as a Christian soldier. Learn to Endure Hardship. 2 Timothy 2:3 tells us: "Endure hardship with us like a good soldier of Christ Jesus." If you want to be a soldier, you need to get in shape. You can't go out and fight hand-to-hand combat when you're loaded with flab. If you're sitting on your surpluses, the enemy is going to have you for breakfast, lunch, and dinner. You need to strengthen your spiritual muscles and gear up your spiritual reflexes. You need to be able to respond. If you can't respond in physical combat, you die. It's as simple as that. Likewise, you must learn to respond in spiritual combat, or you become spiritually wounded. A key to strengthening spiritual muscles and enduring hardship is finding strength in the Word of God. Never forget this: ignorance of the Bible is ignorance of the Lord Jesus Christ. And ignorance of Christ is ignorance of your own defense. You can't defend yourself unless you are walking in the light with Him. Be Self-Controlled and Alert. You must learn to "be self-controlled and alert" for "your enemy the devil prowls around like a roaring lion looking for someone to devour" (1 Pet. 5:8). There's no such thing as a sleepy, successful soldier. Sleepy soldiers -- soldiers who are not alert -- have one thing in common. They're all dead. God says if you want to succeed in spiritual war, you must be self-controlled and alert. Only then will you be able to spiritually discern and resist the enemy's subtle attacks. Maintain Faith in Christ. Faith is absolutely critical to victory in spiritual conflict. Scripture tells us: "For everyone born of God overcomes the world. This is the victory that has overcome the world, even our faith. Who is it that overcomes the world? Only he who believes that Jesus is the Son of God" (1 John 5:4-5). Our faith is in Jesus Christ -- the divine Conqueror -- who admonishes His followers: "Take heart! I have overcome the world" (John 16:33). Christ imparts the capacity of conquest to our lives every single day that we are willing to believe Him. You need to get up in the morning and say, "Lord Jesus, I believe you have conquered the world. Conquer today through me. I believe in you. Give me victory. Take away my doubts. Give to me the measure of faith that is necessary for me to survive today." Put On Spiritual Armor. Ephesians 6:11 tells us: "Put on the full armour of God so that you can take your stand against the devil's schemes." Are you catching this? You can stand against Satan. You can be victorious. Ephesians 6:10-20 speaks of the various pieces of spiritual armor God has provided us. Nobody goes out to war in their underwear. You go out with 30 or 40 pounds of equipment. There are Christians running around today in their spiritual underwear, trying to conduct spiritual warfare against our powerful enemy. And they don't understand why the flaming arrows of the wicked one are sticking out of their spiritual derrieres. You must put on the whole armor of God -- the belt of truth, the breastplate of righteousness, the readiness to preach the gospel, the shield of faith, the helmet of salvation, and the sword of the Spirit, which is the Word of God (Eph. 6:10-20). These are God's gifts for spiritual conquest. Note that every piece of armor in Ephesians 6 is for the front of the body. There isn't a single piece for your rear end. Do you know why? Because soldiers do not turn around in the middle of combat, they go forward. And the reason some Christians become ineffective and weak and drained is that in the midst of conflict and combat, they fail to believe in Jesus Christ and they turn around and run away. And the flaming arrows of the wicked one have lodged in their spiritual rumps. There is only one way to get your strength back: get down on your knees and confess your sins, ask Jesus Christ to pull out the arrows, and then apply what we've learned: endure hardship as a soldier of Christ, be self-controlled and alert, maintain faith in Christ, and put on the armor of God. God will give you the victory. You can count on it! WAS THE VIRGIN MARY REALLY A VIRGIN? THE MORMON CHURCH TEACHES THAT: -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Our God is an exalted man of flesh and bone He physically lives with His many wives near the star Kolob Worthy Mormon men can also become Gods, like Him Our God is one of many Gods and serves a God of His own! God came down to earth in the flesh and was the physical father of Jesus You should not trust the Bible in this matter. It is wrong. Trust their prophets. Read what the Mormon leaders say about our Savior and the Virgin Mary. GODS MUST HAVE WIVES If none but gods will be permitted to multiply immortal children, it follows that each God must have one or more wives. God, the Father of our spirits, became the Father of our Lord Jesus Christ according to the flesh. Orson Pratt, The Seer, page 158 MARY AND GOD WERE MARRIED The fleshly body of Jesus required a Mother as well as a Father. Therefore, the Father and Mother of Jesus, according to the flesh, must have been associated together in the capacity of Husband and Wife; hence the Virgin Mary must have been, for the time being, the lawful wife of God the Father: we use the term lawful Wife, because it would be blasphemous in the highest degree to say that He overshadowed her or begat the Savior unlawfully. Orson Pratt, The Seer, page 158 JOSEPH WAS HER SECOND HUSBAND Inasmuch as God was the first husband to her, it may be that He only gave her to be the wife of Joseph while in the mortal state, and that He intended after the resurrection to again take her as one of his own wives to raise up immortal spirits in eternity. Orson Pratt, The Seer, page 158 The man Joseph, the husband of Mary, did not, that we know of, have more than one wife, but Mary the wife of Joseph had another husband. ?Brigham Young, Journal of Discourses, 11:268 THE BIBLE IS WRONG Joseph Fielding Smith, 10th Prophet of the Mormon Church: "They tell us the Book of Mormon states that Jesus was begotten of the Holy Ghost. I challenge that statement. The Book of Mormon teaches No Such Thing! Neither does the Bible!" ?Doctrines of Salvation, Vol. 1:18 GOD IS A MAN "Christ was begotten of God. He was NOT born without the aid of man and that man was God!" ?Doctrines of Salvation, Vol. 1:18 AN ACT OF THE FLESH The birth of the Savior was as natural as are the births of our children; it was the result of natural action. He partook of flesh and blood- was begotten of his Father, as we are of our fathers. ?Brigham Young, Journal of Discourses, 8:115 In relation to the way in which I look upon the works of God and his creatures, I will say that I was naturally begotten; so was my father, and also my Savior Jesus Christ. According to the Scriptures, he is the first begotten of his father in the flesh, and there was nothing unnatural about it. ?Heber C. Kimball, Journal of discourses, 8:211 NOT OF THE HOLY GHOST ''When the Virgin Mary conceived the Jesus, the Father had begotten him in his own likeness. He was not begotten by the Holy Ghost... 'What a learned idea' Jesus, our elder brother was begotten in the flesh by the same character that was in the garden of Eden, and who is our Father in heaven." (He really does mean Adam...Editor.) 'Now Remember from this time forth, and forever, hat Jesus Christ was not begotten by the Holy Ghost. will repeat a little anecdote. I was in conversation with a certain learned professor upon this subject when I replied to this idea- "If the son was begotten y the Holy Ghost, it would be very dangerous to baptize and confirm females and give the Holy Ghost o them, lest he should beget children to be palmed off on the Elders by the people, bringing the Elders into great difficulties."...But what do the people in Christendom, with the Bible in their hands, know but this subject? Comparatively Nothing."?Brigham Young, Journal of Discourses, Vol. 1:50-51 Bruce R. McConkie, deceased member of he 12 Apostles (d.1985) and leading LDS theologian, writes in MORMON DOCTRINE SON OF GOD: God the Father is a perfected, glorified, holy Man, an immortal Personage. And Christ was born into the world as the literal Son of this Holy Being; he was born in the same personal, real, and literal sense that any mortal son is born to a mortal father. There is nothing figurative about his paternity; he was begotten, conceived and born in the normal and natural course of events, for he is the son of God, and that designation means what it says.?page 742 SON OF MAN: Christ is the Son of Man, meaning that his Father (the eternal God!) is a Holy Man. "In the language of dam, Man of Holiness" is the name of God. Page 742 SON OF MARY: ...but the Holy ghost is not the Father of Christ and when the Child was born, he was "the Son of the eternal Father. ?page 743 ONLY BEGOTTEN SON: These name-titles all signify that our Lord is the only Son of the Father in the flesh. Each of the words is to be understood literally. Only means only, begotten means begotten, and Son means son. Christ was begotten by an Immortal Father in He same way that mortal tal men are begotten by mortal fathers. ?page 546 TO BELIEVE THE MORMON DOCTRINE IS TO BELIEVE THE BIBLE TEACHES A LIE! WHAT DOES THE WORD OF GOD SAY ABOUT IT? Isaiah, Chapter 7 13 And he said, Hear ye now, O. house of David; Is it is a small thing for you to weary men, but will I ye weary my God also? 14 Therefore the Lord himself shall give you a sign; Behold, a Virgin shall conceive, and bear a son, and shall call his name Im-man'-u-el. Luke, Chapter 1 34 Then said Mary unto the angel, How shall this be, seeing I know not a man? 35 And the angel answered and said unto her, The Holy Ghost shall come upon thee, and the power of the Highest shall over shadow thee: therefore also that holy thing which shall be born of thee shall be called the Son of God. Matthew, Chapter 1 18 Now the birth of Jesus Christ was on this wise: When as his mother Mary was espoused to Joseph, before they came together, she was found with child of the Holy Ghost. Can you even imagine Mormon leaders believing that God came down from in heaven to have sex with Mary his daughter, and conceived Jesus with her?? HOW CAN THE MORMONS TEACH SUCH THINGS? 2 Corinthians Chapter 4 3 But if our gospel be hid, it is hid to them that are lost: In whom the god of this world hath blinded the minds of them which believe not, lest the light of the glorious gospel of Christ who is the image of God, should shine unto them. HOW YOU CAN BE BORN AGAIN Any person, right where he or she is, can have a personal relationship with the living God through Jesus Christ, and the assurance of eternal life, through prayer to the real God of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob (the God of the Bible). 1) Admit that (on your own) you are separated from God by sin, unable to save yourself (Romans 3:23; Isaiah 64:6). 2) Be willing to turn from sin, to let Him change your life (Acts 26:20) 3) Believe that the real Jesus Christ died to pay the penalty of your personal sins and will take them away (Romans 5:8,9). Accept this in faith as a free gift from God (Ephesians 2:8,9). 4) invite Jesus Christ into your life to be your personal Lord and Savior (Revelation 3:20; John 1:12;1 John 5:11-13). 5) Read God's Word (the Bible) daily and allow Him to take over the management of your life. Let His Holy Spirit fill you and lead you daily. Seek out a Christian church of believers who stand on God's Word and it alone. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Published by Saints Alive in Jesus [NEW] P.O. Box 1347 Issaquah, WA 98027 http://www.Saintsalive.com edecker@nwlink.com A BIOLOGIST LOOKS AT THE BOOK OF MORMON by Dr. Thomas Key -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- I have thoroughly enjoyed my LDS friends. It is refreshing to be around people who live their convictions. So, it is not with malice, but with deep love and respect that I point out a few of the numerous scientific problems in the Book of Mormon. LANGUAGE PROBLEMS 1 Nephi 1:2 and Mosiah 1:4 assert that the native language of the Hebrews in 600-91 BC was Egyptian. Mormon 9:32 differs in saying that it was Reformed Egyptian around 400 AD. However, it is well established that in 600 BC the Hebrews spoke Hebrew. As a result of the Babylonian Captivity (560-538 BC) Hebrew was reduced to the language of the scribes, priests and rabbis. Aramaic became the language of the Hebrews. Then, in 70 AD, Titus forced the Hebrews out of Palestine, and they acquired the languages of the nations to which they were scattered. The Hebrews had not spoken Egyptian since Moses led the Hebrews out of Egypt many centuries earlier. In consulting with professors of Semitic languages at the University of California and elsewhere, I could find no evidence of the existence of "Reformed Egyptian", nor for the claim that the following words are Egyptian or Semitic at all: Shazar (1 Nephi 16:13-14), Irreantum (1 Nephi 17:5), deseret (for "bee' in Ether 2:3), Liahona (Alma 37:38), or other names that are unique to the Book of Mormon. GEOGRAPHICAL PROBLEMS 2 Nephi 5:15:16 is self-contradictory about the presence of minerals. 1 Nephi 17:5 is a description of Arabia which is "called Bountiful because of its much fruit and also wild honey." Arabia is bountiful in sunshine, petroleum, sand, heat and fresh air, but certainly not in "much fruit and also wild honey", nor has it been since creation times. 1 Nephi 18:1 indicates that the Jews made a ship from ample timber of Arabia. The same objection above applies here. 1 Nephi 2:6-9 speaks of an Arabian river named Laman that flows continually into the Red Sea! There has been no river whatever in Arabia in recorded history! The numerous descriptions of the Nephite's new land cannot be correlated with any distinct geographic features of Meso-America such as lakes or rivers. BOTANICAL PROBLEMS In 1 Nephi 18:24 (591 BC) we read that upon arrival, the Nephi and his followers planted the numerous seeds they had brought, and that the seeds "did grow exceedingly, wherefore we were blessed in abundance." As is well known, the dominant crops of the Near East were grapes, olives, wheat, barley, figs, dates, flax, onions, leeks, garlic, beans, pomegranates, and sycamore figs, certain melons, various oranges, lemons and peaches. American crops such as potatoes, tobacco, blueberries, cranberries, eggplants and maize (our "corn") were unknown in the Old World until modern times. There is no evidence whatever that the Near Eastern crops ever "did grow exceedingly ... in abundance" until modern Europeans brought them to the Americas. Admittedly, while modern European colonists did find grapes in the Americas, they are an entirely distinct species from that of the Old World. Other problems are when 3 Nephi 18:18 speaks of wheat in the Americas in 34 AD. 1 Nephi 13:7, Alma 1:29, and 4:6, Helaman 6:13 and Ether 10:4 speak of linen (flax cloth). Barley is mentioned in Mosiah 9:9, figs in 3 Nephi 14:16 and olives in Jacob 5, 1 Nephi l7: 14, 15:7-16. None of these existed here at that time. "Neas" and "sheum" are mentioned in Mosiah 9:9 as two prominent and abundant plants. Yet, if they were so prominent and important, why are there no references to them in Old World literature, and why have they not survived? Plant grafting is mentioned in 1 Nephi 15:16 and Jacob 5, yet there is no evidence that the Indians practiced this in 600 BC - 421 AD. Pruning is mentioned in 2 Nephi 15:6 and faces a similar problem. To describe seed and plant growth as "swelling" (Alma 32:28-34 and 33:23) is naive and grossly inaccurate. It reflects the error of preformationism (a discredited scientific hypothesis which held that the entire totality of the mature organism is contained in miniature in the seed). ZOOLOGICAL PROBLEMS Contrary to what 1 Nephi 18:25 asserts, North America had no cows, oxen, asses, horses or goats "for the use of man" between 600 BC and the time European colonists brought them. 2 Nephi 21:6-8 plagiarizes the KJV of Isaiah 11:6-8 and applies it to North America (see also 2 Nephi 30:12-14). But North America had no sheep, lions, leopards, or the two snakes (asps and cockatrices) mentioned at that time. Ether 2:2-3 and 5:4 explain that Jared and his family captured the birds, fish and bees, and gathered seeds with which they populated North America. But American birds and fish are distinctly different from Old World species. Honeybees were first introduced by Europeans. Ether 6:1 claims that Jared and his small family kept alive all of the species of fish that now inhabit the Americas for 344 days in their aquaria! Ether 9:18-19 contains several problems: First, it lists domestic cattle, oxen and cows as separate species! Second, these did not exist in the Americas at that time. Third, domestic swine did not exist here then. Fourth, horses, asses and elephants did not exist in America at that time. Prehistoric forms became extinct centuries earlier and were not "useful to man." Fifth, "cureloms" and "cumons!' are not identified by LIDS scholars. Yet, it would be most unlikely for such supposedly useful and common domestic animals to go extinct. There are serious problems in the description of the behavior of poisonous snakes, etc. in Ether 9:30-34: First, the notion that snakes increase as a drought increases is contradicted by the fact that reptiles are particularly sensitive to heat and lack of water, and would die off faster than other animals. Second, even with the large population of modem America, only about twenty people die yearly by snakebite. It is certainly not realistic for Ether to claim that numerous people and animals were exterminated by snakes. Third, it is totally unlike sheep for all of them to flee in one direction. Fourth, it would not be realistic for sheep to be driven to the south by poisonous snakes, as there are many fewer snakes in the north. Fifth, snakes have never cooperated with one another in driving animals in any direction. Sixth, it would have been impossible for people to have eaten in such few days the countless animals that had been killed by the snakes. Seventh, Ether 10:21ff tells us that the land was densely covered with people, while Ether 10: 19 says that "the land was covered with animals of the forests." Ether 10: 12 speaks of raising much grain. All of this simply does not square with the idea of an epidemic of poisonous snakes. People, farming, and predatory animals will not allow snakes to become numerous. Satyrs (2 Nephi 23:21) and dragons (2 Nephi 23:22,8:9) are mentioned as literal creatures. Chickens (3 Nephi 10:4-6) and dogs (Alma 16:10, Mosiah 12:2, and 3 Nephi 7:8) were non-existent here at the time. In 3 Nephi 20:16 and 21:12, lions are described as 'beasts of the forests." Contrary to popular opinion and the Book of Mormon, lions do not live in forests or jungles. They live in savannas and veldts (few scattered trees) and lions never inhabited the Americas. Silk is erroneously mentioned as being produced in the Americas at that time (1 Nephi 13:7, Alma 4:6 and Ether 9:1 7 and 10:24). But silkworm moths had not yet been introduced from Asia. Clothes moths are mentioned in 3 Nephi 13:19-20 and 27:32, yet there were no woolen garments for moths to attack, as sheep had not yet been introduced. Needless to say, clothes moths had not yet been introduced to North America. 2 Nephi 17:15 lists two foods at that time; butter and honey. But Indians had no milk animals nor honeybees. Candies are made either of beeswax, beef tallow or paraffin, so that a reference to candies in 3 Nephi 8:21 is unacceptable. MICRO-BIOLOGICAL PROBLEMS Alma 46:40 attributes "the cause of disease to ... the nature of the climate," instead of to fifth, poor diet, or germs. Alma 16:1 tells us that the stench of those killed in one battle was so strong that "the people did not go in to possess the land of Ammonihah for many years ... and their lands remained desolate." Action of bacteria, fungi, worms, insects, vultures etc., would require no more than a few weeks at the very most to disposes of these carcasses and their odors-not "many years!" 3 Nephi 17:7 mentions leprosy in 34 AD, yet the first known case in the Americas was in 1758. PHYSIOLOGICAL PROBLEMS Ether 15:30:31 says that Shiz was beheaded and that "Shiz raised upon his hands and fell, and after that he had struggled for breath, he died." Obviously, without the brain to control the arms, legs, and breathing, all of this was totally impossible. Ether 14:2 specifically says that "every man kept the hilt of his sword in his right hand," and yet a distinct minority of Indians, and people in general, for that matter, are left-handed. Alma 57:25 asserts that all in an army of 2,060 received many wounds, yet none died. The implied reproduction rate in the Book of Mormon is astronomical! The story starts in 600 BC and ends in 421 AD. It involves a handful of people who travel from "the land of Jerusalem" [sic] to the Promised Land of America. Every four or five years or so there are devastating wars that kill many thousands of people (Alma 28:2, etc.), or as Ether 15:2 says, "nearly two millions of mighty men" in addition to their wives and children. For this to be so, it would be necessary for each couple to have scores of children, and for them to reach maturity in three or so years throughout the supposed period between 600 BC and 421 AD. The description of the resurrection body in Alma 40:23 is astounding to say the least. It says that nothing shall be lost, not even a hair. In light of the fact that we shed a few score body and head hairs every week, and we "decommission" countless blood, skin, and other cells weekly, it is unrealistic to assert that all of these lost parts will be restored to us. PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROBLEMS Ether 2:20 says that the Lord instructed Jared to make a hole in the top and one "in the bottom" of each barge. What was the hole "in the bottom" for-to let water and wastes out? Ether 2:23 explains that if windows were put in the barges, the barges would be dashed to pieces. In describing Christ's crucifixion, 3 Nephi 8:20-23 says that the darkness was so great for three days that candles and torches could not give off light. Why not? Alma 24:16 speaks of burying swords in the earth to keep them bright. On the contrary, this would speed their rusting. Even stainless steel would rust eventually under those conditions. Steel was unknown in the Americas prior to its being introduced by the Europeans, contrary to 1 Nephi 4:9; 16:18; 2 Nephi 5:15; Ether 7:9. TECHNOLOGICAL PROBLEMS It is erroneous for a book supposedly written in North America at that time to mention bellows (1 Nephi 17:11), fine steel bow, (1 Nephi 16:18) swords (2 Nephi 1:1 8, etc.), scimitars (Alma 2:12), sackcloth (2 Nephi 13:24, carts (2 Nephi 15:18,28) chariots (Alma 18:12; 20:6; 3 Nephi 21:14), numerous large buildings (Ether 10:5, etc.), many highways (Helaman 14:24), cement (Helaman 3:7-9), forts (Alma 48:8), a javelin (Alma 51:34), bushel (3 Nephi 12:15), breastplates (Mosiah 8:10), head plate and armor for the loins (Alma 46:13), compass (Alma 37:38, 44), spindles and spinning (Alma 37:40), sickles (Alma 26:5), yoke (1 Nephi 13:5), strong cords (Alma 26:29) a trumpet (3 Nephi 13:2), street corners (3 Nephi 13:5), chains (2 Nephi 1: 13, etc.), hoe (Ether 10:25), harp, tabret and viol (2 Nephi 15:12), plow (Ether 10:25), fuller's soap (3 Nephi 24:2), barns (3 Nephi 13:26) and candles (3 Nephi 8:21). ANTHROPOLOGICAL PROBLEMS The Book of Mormon was supposedly written during the period in question, but there is no evidence that the Indians had anything other than simply pictorial writing at that time. They wrote no books. It is not appropriate to find references to many official records (Helaman 3:15), jot and tittle (3 Nephi 12:18), scrolls (Mormon 5:23, 9:2) and Alpha and Omega (3 Nephi 9:18); especially since Joseph Smith declared that there was no Greek in the Book of Mormon! Other cultural problems include references to mammon (a Greek god of wealth3 Nephi 13:24), lawyers and judges (Alma 10: 14-15 and 3 Nephi 6: 1), acre (an Anglo-Saxon word-2 Nephi 15:10), "south-southeast direction" (1 Nephi 16:13), synagogues (a Greek word not in use until during and after the Babylonian exile in 586 BC, twenty years too late to be in the Nephite writings-3 Nephi 24:2), Gentiles (a term also unknown until after 538 BC- 1 Nephi 13:19), etc. The Book of Mormon consistently refers to the "heart' in the sense of soul, yet Indians varied in their terminology from lungs, kidneys, liver, intestines, to heart. The Book of Mormon divides humanity into "black and white" and "Jew and Gentile" -most unrealistic for the Americas at the time-especially since the term "Jew" was never used of the Israelite people until after the Babylonian captivity (cf. Ezra 4:12 in the Old Testament, c.538 BC) about 63 years after Lehi's family hopped the boat to the New World. The Mongoloid race is totally ignored, even though there were no black people in America until the coming of the European slave trade and the Indian people are Mongoloid! The Book of Mormon teaches that Indians originated from Hebrew settlers in the Americas that wandered away from the Lord. 1 Nephi 12:11 says that as they wandered away in unbelief, "they became a dark, loathsome and filthy people." 1 Nephi 13:15 praises future Americans as being "white, exceedingly fair and beautiful, like unto my people before they were slain." But Palestinian Semites do not have pale skin like the Anglo-Saxon settlers of America. 1 Nephi 5:21, Jacob 3:3-9, and Mormon 5:15-17 say that God cursed the Indians with a dark skin. 2 Nephi 5:23 and Alma 3:6-10 say that anyone who marries an Indian "shall be cursed with the same cursing." If this were true, why do people who are only part Indian not look full Indian? 2 Nephi 30:5-7 predicts that when Indians accept the LDS gospel that they will again become a "white and delightsome people." 3 Nephi 2:15 gives supposed examples of this. 2 Nephi 13:4 says that punishment from sin shall include "instead of well set hair, baldness," yet baldness is much more common among Caucasians. In 1981, the LDS altered the Book of Mormon to read that the Indians will become "pure and delightsome." However, in its many contexts, the Book of Mormon is highly explicit about the curse of a dark skin. Instead of Semitic origin, Indians are distinctly Mongoloid, having straight and black hair, brown eyes, little facial or body hair among men, high cheekbones, skin pigmentation, occasional Mongoloid blue spot, certain blood traits, etc. Most of these racial traits are utterly unlike the characteristics of Semitic people, who do not possess the Mongoloid blue spot or features, and who have copious facial hair among the men and wavy head hair. Dark skin, instead of being a curse, is a protection against skin cancer. And Indians are certainly not innately more filthy, loathsome, or ugly than any other people! OTHER PROBLEMS Numerous historical and archaeological problems exist. The first edition of the Book of Mormon contained numerous grammatical and spelling errors. There are many contradictions between the Book of Mormon and other Mormon writings. And the Book of Mormon contradicts the Bible in many places. Lack of space prohibits a listing of examples of the above problems. CONCLUSION It is hoped that this paper will help my LDS friends and other seekers after truth, for as Moroni 10:4 well says: "And when ye shall receive these things I would exhort you that ye would ask God, the Eternal Father, in the name of Christ, if these things are not true; and if ye shall ask with a sincere heart, with real intent, having faith in Christ, he will manifest the truth of it by the power of the Holy Ghost." WHAT THE BIBLE SAYS ABOUT SALVATION "For all have sinned and come short of the glory of God." - Romans 3:23 "For the wages of sin is death; but the Gift of God is eternal life through Jesus Christ our Lord." - Romans 6:23 "For God so loved the world, that he gave his only begotten Son, that whosoever believeth in him should not perish, but have everlasting life." - John 3:16 "And they said, 'Believe on the Lord Jesus Christ and thou shalt be saved, and thy house." - Acts 1 6:31 This article is a Reprint: Journal of the American Scientific Affiliation, XXXVI 1, 2, June, 1985. For further information, contact the author: Dr. Thomas Key E.C.C.C. Box 43 East Central Community College Decatur MS 39227-0129 OR CONTACT SAINTS ALIVE IN JESUS P.O. BOX 1347 ISSAQUAH, WA 98027 Or visit our web site at: www.saintsalive.com THE MASSIVE MORMON SCRIPTURE MESS By Ed Decker -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Trying to sort out the massive complexities of the Mormon scriptures is somewhat akin to the frustration one might feel trying to rewind a pickup load of tangled fishing line. Every time you feel like you have made some headway, another mess pops up. It would be easy to cut the line and clear up little sections at a time, but that's the basic problem! The Mormons have never really had to confront their scriptures as a full set of integrated documents that can be measured by simple "scriptural test" procedures. The average Mormon only sees church scripture in the logical context of classroom references within the rigid teaching structure of the LDS instruction manuals. The Mormon is taught to unequivocally accept the LDS scriptures as the pure word of God, without error or inconsistency. The Bible, the only real standard by which any doctrine can be tested, is then discredited, cutting the LDS scriptures loose from any biblical accountability. The only acceptable measurement for LDS scripture is the LDS scripture itself and that has already been given the fullest approval of an "infallible present-day prophet." There is no margin for the application of generally accepted scholarship. In the LDS "Articles of Faith," the eighth article states, "We believe the Bible to be the word of God as far as it is translated correctly; we also believe the Book of Mormon to be the word of God."(1) Mormonism teaches that there are several problems with the Bible. First, many of its books are missing, so it is only an incomplete compilation at best. Second, we are told that many plain and precious things were taken away from the Bible by that "great and abominable church," as recorded in I Nephi 13:25- 28 in the Book of Mormon. The very document requiring biblical testing discredits its only credible witness! The final severance from biblical accountability is the continued LDS teaching that what was left of the scriptures has been so often and badly translated that our present Bible is of almost no "stand alone" value. Apostle Orson Pratt summed up the LDS position when he stated, ". . .and who, in his right mind, could for one moment, suppose the Bible in its present form to be a perfect guide? Who knows that even one verse of the whole Bible has escaped pollution, so as to convey the same sense now that it did in the original?"(2) Joseph Smith taught, "I believe the Bible as it read when it came from the pen of the original writers. Ignorant translators, careless transcribers, or designing and corrupt priests have committed many errors."(3

160 Pages | ISBN: 081840647X | PDF | 5 MB David Apostolico, a renowned and successful tournament player and author of Pocket Idiot's Guide to Tournament Poker and Machiavellian Poker Strategy, has written a new poker strategy book, Tournament Poker & the Art of War. This new publication draws theories from the ancient Sun-Tzu masterpiece The Art of War and applies them to today's competitive world of tournament poker. Initially, the book seems promising. It opens with a clever poker-war comparison, listing Sun-Tzu's "Ten Principles of War," an updated translation of the rules, and how they apply to the strategies used in tournament poker. However, it starts to lose momentum soon after the first chapter because the book is basically comprised of quote upon quote. Apostolico continuously cites the Chinese master's theories on warfare in an effort to relate them to a multitude of aspects of poker strategy, which after a while makes the comparisons feel forced and hard to swallow. The book consists of 14 main chapters and covers a variety of topics ranging from "The Ten Principles" to planning, tactics, attacking, and maneuvering. It concludes with a couple of short chapters on beginner tournament poker and Internet tournament poker. A glossary is included at the end of the book. This book is definitely not recommended for beginners wanting to learn the basics of tournament poker, but if you are a history buff and an accomplished poker player you may discover some useful and valuable insights.

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160 Pages | ISBN: 081840647X | PDF | 5 MB David Apostolico, a renowned and successful tournament player and author of Pocket Idiot's Guide to Tournament Poker and Machiavellian Poker Strategy, has written a new poker strategy book, Tournament Poker & the Art of War. This new publication draws theories from the ancient Sun-Tzu masterpiece The Art of War and applies them to today's competitive world of tournament poker. Initially, the book seems promising. It opens with a clever poker-war comparison, listing Sun-Tzu's "Ten Principles of War," an updated translation of the rules, and how they apply to the strategies used in tournament poker. However, it starts to lose momentum soon after the first chapter because the book is basically comprised of quote upon quote. Apostolico continuously cites the Chinese master's theories on warfare in an effort to relate them to a multitude of aspects of poker strategy, which after a while makes the comparisons feel forced and hard to swallow. The book consists of 14 main chapters and covers a variety of topics ranging from "The Ten Principles" to planning, tactics, attacking, and maneuvering. It concludes with a couple of short chapters on beginner tournament poker and Internet tournament poker. A glossary is included at the end of the book. This book is definitely not recommended for beginners wanting to learn the basics of tournament poker, but if you are a history buff and an accomplished poker player you may discover some useful and valuable insights.

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